Bend matters, Part 1: A look at macrobending
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Bend matters, Part 2: Microbending in optical fibers
As we discussed in Part 1 of this two-part series, optical power loss is a significant determinant of network performance. Loss can come from a variety of sources, both environmental and man-made. One factor that can combine both environmental and human elements is bending.Bending comes in two forms: macrobending and microbending. Macrobending has received significant attention in the media over the past few years as the new generation of “enhanced bending” fibers has reached the market. But microbending also can adversely affect optical power budgets, and requires the right combination of glass design and optical coating to overcome.Microbending basics?Microbending attenuation of an optical fiber relates to the light signal loss associated with lateral stresses along the length of the fiber. The loss is due to the coupling from the fiber’s guided fundamental mode to lossy, higher-order radiation modes. Mode coupling occurs when fibers suffer small random bends along the fiber axes. This random bending is usually caused by external mechanical stresses against the cable material that compress the fiber. The result is random, high-frequency perturbations to the fiber (Figure 1).
Bend matters, Part 1: A look at macrobending
Wherever optical fiber is deployed, from transoceanic links to the final drop to the residential unit, protecting the optical power budget is of paramount importance.Loss matters. This fundamental truth is easily understood when long-haul links are being deployed that must cope with state-of-the-art 100-Gbps transmission. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) improvement of 10 dB per span is required to upgrade from 10 Gbps to 100 Gbps. While advanced modulation formats and forward error correction (FEC) can provide some of the improvement, low-attenuation fiber is necessary to enable this upgrade at the lowest cost by minimizing the need for additional amplifiers and signal regeneration.In addition, low attenuation is especially important in developing countries where shallow, direct-buried installation of cables is common (Figure 1). Such cables often require repair due to damage from mechanical excavation. Each restoration of a cable cut (by fusion splicing the broken fiber ends) can increase the signal loss by up to 0.2 dB, as the repair is often performed quickly in potentially unfavorable environmental conditions due to the need for rapid service restoration. A few cuts can rapidly exceed a power budget designed with too little margin.
BaySpec offers FlexSpec optical channel performance monitor
BaySpec Inc. has introduced its FlexSpec series of optical channel performance monitors (OCPMs). The FlexSpec OCPMs are designed to support high-resolution monitoring of unpredictable channel locations and widths with the ability to resolve intrachannel features and carriers.The new OCPMs target emerging high-speed transmission requirements in fiber-optic networks, including 100G/400G optical transport. BaySpec says the devices’ continuous spectral reading OCPM design ensures a future-proof ability to upgrade existing units in the field via firmware. This capability reduces opex, particularly for price-sensitive metro core applications. The 400G versions of the FlexSpec are compatible with existing 10/40/100G units as well.
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10GTEK TRANSCEIVERS CO., LTD (Hereinafter refered to as 10GTEK) is specialized in developing and manufacturing Fiber Optical Transceivers and High Performance Cables which are wildly applied in Datacom, Telecom and CATV, providing customers with top quality and cost effective products. Our High Speed Cables cover Passive SFP+ Cable, Active SFP+ Cable, QSFP+ cables, MiniSAS (SFF-8088) Cables, CX4 Cables, Harness cables, Breakout Cables, Patchcords. We also manufacture Fiber Optic Transceivers like 10G XFP, 10G SFP+, SFP DWDM/ CWDM, GBIC, etc. The prompt response and excellent customer support contribute to clients‘ full satisfaction.Today, 10GTEK has been growing fast in the optical field for its unique and competitve excellence which has got a high attention from datacom and telecom.
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